BY-Biology Courses

Courses

BY 101. Topics in Contemporary Biology. 3 Hours.

Selected topics in the current understanding of biological systems, ranging from humans to ecosystems. Particular focus on scientific issues such as human diseases, genetic engineering, emerging infectious diseases, environmental causes of disease, and climate change, as well as analysis of these issues as presented in print and electronic media. NOTE: Not for biology majors or minors (with BY 102). This course, when taken with its corresponding laboratory, meets the Core Curriculum requirements for Area III: Natural Sciences.

BY 102. Topics Contemporary Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Experiments and demonstrations in contemporary biology with strong emphasis is placed on understanding the systems of the human body. Drawing and writing assignments will focus on the structure and function of the important systems of the human body. Quantitative Literacy is a significant component of this course.

BY 108. Human Population and the Earth's Environment. 3 Hours.

Influence of human population on Earth's environment. Specific attention will be paid to environmental issues such as population growth, climate change, water and energy resources, pollution, waste disposal, plant and animal extinctions, and food resources. Strong emphasis will be placed on determining solution to the variety of environmental problems facing the earth. Lecture and film. Ethics and Civic Responsibility are significant components of this course.

BY 109. Laboratory in Environmental Science. 1 Hour.

Experiments on topics essential to study of environment and which reveal complexity of solving environmental problems. Writing, Ethics and Civic Responsibility are significant components of this course.
Prerequisites: BY 108 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently) or ENV 108 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently)

BY 111. Extended Topics in Contemporary Biology. 3 Hours.

Selected topics in contemporary biology of interest to students with minimal background in biology. Topics presented in interactive lecture/discussion format. This course, when taken with its corresponding laboratory, meets the Core Curriculum requirements for Area III: Natural Sciences. NOTE: Only general elective credit for biology major or minor.
Prerequisites: BY 101 [Min Grade: D]

BY 112. Ext Topics Contemporary Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Further examination, interpretation, and discussion of topics in BY 111. Independent and group projects. NOTE: Only general elective credit for biology major or minor.
Prerequisites: BY 111 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently)

BY 115. Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Principles of vertebrate structure with emphasis on gross and microscopic human anatomy. Survey of human embryology and evolution. Lecture and laboratory.

BY 115L. Human Anatomy Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Human Anatomy Lab required with BY 115 lecture.

BY 116. Introductory Human Physiology. 4 Hours.

Integrated functions of human cells, tissues, and organ systems. NOTE: Only general elective credit for biology majors or minors. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 115 [Min Grade: C] and (CH 105 [Min Grade: C] and CH 106 [Min Grade: C] or CH 115 [Min Grade: C] and CH 116 [Min Grade: C] or CH 114 [Min Grade: C] or CH 117 [Min Grade: C] and CH 118 [Min Grade: C] or CH 119 [Min Grade: C])

BY 116L. Introductory Human Physiology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Human Physiology Lab required with BY 116 lecture.

BY 123. Introductory Biology I. 4 Hours.

Basic chemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, evolution, bacteria, and protists. For major in biology and related fields. Quantitative Literacy and Writing are significant components of this course. Lecture and laboratory. Eligible for, enrolled in, or have completed MA 106, MA 107, MA 125, or MA 126. This course meets the Core Curriculum requirements for Area III: Natural Sciences.
Prerequisites: MA 106 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or MA 107 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or MA 125 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or MA 225 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or MA 126 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or MA 226 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or (A02 25 and HSCG 3.50) or (A02 24 and HSCG 3.50) or (A02 25 and HSCG 2.50) or A02 26 or (S02 580 and HSCG 3.50) or (S02 560 and HSCG 3.50) or (S02 580 and HSCG 3.50) or S02 600 or MAC1 17 or MAAD 24

BY 123L. Introductory Biology I Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Introductory Biology I Lab required with BY 123 lecture.

BY 124. Introductory Biology II. 4 Hours.

The course emphasizes the transition from cell, to tissue, to organs in multicellular systems. Specific attention in the course will be paid to a survey of the various groups of plants, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates. Strong emphasis will be placed on comparing the anatomy and physiology of the major organ systems in humans with those of other organisms. The course is designed to expand the students understanding of the process of scientific writing. Quantitative Literacy and Writing are significant components of this course. This course meets the Core Curriculum requirements for Area III: Natural Sciences.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C]

BY 124L. Introductory Biology II Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Introductory Biology II Lab required with BY 124 lecture.

BY 210. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Principles and mechanisms of inheritance; structure, action, and regulation of genes; molecular genetic technology and application to human health and agriculture. Preparation for advanced courses in biology.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 213. Phage Genomics I. 4 Hours.

Phage Genomics I is the first semester of a year-long lecture, laboratory, and web-enhanced course designed to provide an authentic research experience for undergraduate students. The course will address themes and techniques from across biology including microbiology, phage genetics, molecular biology, bioinformatics, and electron microscopy. Preqs: completed application (contact biology advisor) and permission of instructor. Freshmen and sophomores only.

BY 214. Phage Genomics II. 4 Hours.

This course is the second semester of a year-long lecture, laboratory, and web-enhanced class designed to provide an authentic research experience for undergraduate students. Students will learn the concepts and procedures for: annotating segments of a unique mycobacteriophage genome to indentify open reading frames, genes, and regulatory sequences; compare this bacteriophage genome to other sequenced bacteriophage genomes; compare and analyze amino acid sequences to reveal relationships between species; writing and presentation of scientific results. Freshmen and sophomores only.
Prerequisites: BY 213 [Min Grade: C]

BY 216. Pathophysiology. 3 Hours.

The course addresses epidemiologically relevant human pathologies resulting in disrupted homeostasis with an emphasis toward causal agents, mechanism of injury at the cellular and histological levels, pathogenic manifestations at the cellular, histologic, organ system and organismal levels, and applicable treatment strategies currently used in their medical detection, intervention and management. The course stresses modalities for human disease including genetic mutation, infection, neoplasia, immune dysfunction, preventable behaviors, endocrine alterations, and aging. The course specifically integrates the pathogenic model¿s impact on stress reactions, immune defenses, hematology, ventilation-respiration, cardiovascular perfusion, fluid balance, and nutrition. The course incorporates some remediation of the normal physiology and genetics required for homeostasis and introduces clinical profiling and case study learning.
Prerequisites: BY 116 [Min Grade: C] or BY 409 [Min Grade: D] or BY 124 [Min Grade: D] and (BY 261 [Min Grade: C] or BY 271 [Min Grade: C])

BY 220. CLOne: Chromatin Laboratory 1. 0-4 Hours.

Students will learn laboratory skills in molecular genetics, with a focuses on generating CRISPR guide RNAs and testing their efficiency in Drosophila cells. The students will be introduced to the scope of the project, read relevant literature, and will conclude their research experience by writing a journal-style report on their results.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: D]

BY 245. Fundamentals of Scientific Investigation. 3 Hours.

The course covers the basics of scientific investigation with an emphasis on understanding methods of the scientific process, experimental design, data interpretation and presentation and scientific writing. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of data management and statistical packages to address the most common types of data analysis used to investigate specific applications in biology. Quantitative Literacy is a significant component of this course. Recommend course is taken before junior year.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 255. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Hours.

Invertebrate phyla, emphasizing evolutionary relationships, biological principles demonstrated by invertebrates, and significance of invertebrates in total ecology. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 255L. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Invertebrate Zoology Lab required with BY 255 lecture.

BY 256. Vertebrate Zoology. 4 Hours.

Comparative approach to the structure, function, ecology, life history, and conservation of vertebrates. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and CH 115 [Min Grade: C] and (CH 116 [Min Grade: C] or CH 114 [Min Grade: C])

BY 256L. Vertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Vertebrate Zoology Lab required with BY 256 lecture.

BY 260. Botany. 4 Hours.

Development, structure, physiology, and diversity of plants, emphasizing vascular plants. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 260L. Botany Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Botany Lab required with BY 260 lecture.

BY 261. Introduction to Microbiology. 4 Hours.

Cell structure and function, microbial genetics, viruses, and epidemiology and infectious disease. NOTE: Cannot be applied toward requirements for a biology major. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 116 [Min Grade: C] and BY 123 [Min Grade: C] or CH 107 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) and CH 108 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or CH 235 [Min Grade: C] and CH 234 [Min Grade: C] or CH 236 [Min Grade: C]) or CH 237 [Min Grade: C] and (CH 238 [Min Grade: C] or CH 239 [Min Grade: C])

BY 261L. Introduction to Microbiology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Introduction to Microbiology Lab required with BY 261 lecture.

BY 267. Tropical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Major tropical ecotypes; ecology of terrestrial, aquatic, and marine tropical organisms. Major portion conducted at tropical field station in Caribbean. Lecture and field trips (May session, alternate years). Permission of Instructor required.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: D]

BY 268. Galapagos Ecology. 3 Hours.

An overview of the ecology of the Galapagos Island, with an emphasis on the ecology of terrestrial and marine organsims. Major portion of course conducted on the Galapagos Islands. Lecture & field trips. Permission of instructor required.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: D]

BY 269. Rain Forest Ecology. 3 Hours.

Physical and environmental factors that structure rain forest, biodiversity of life, and interactions of its organisms. Prominent biota. Major portion of course taught at tropical field station in Costa Rica. Lecture and field trips (May session, alternate years). Permission of instructor required.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: D]

BY 271. Biology of Microorganisms. 4 Hours.

Microbiology with emphasis on molecular aspects of microbial cell structure, function, and diversity. Host defense mechanisms, infectious disease, and microbial ecology. Preparation for advanced courses in biology. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D] and CH 117 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 118 [Min Grade: D] or CH 119 [Min Grade: D])

BY 271L. Biology of Microorganisms Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Biology of Microorganisms Lab required with BY 271 lecture.

BY 280. Biology of Aging. 3 Hours.

Current understanding of aging, measurement of aging changes, theories of aging, and aging changes in various human systems.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C]

BY 311. Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structure and function.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D]

BY 314. Embryology. 3 Hours.

Descriptive and experimental studies of vertebrate development at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels.
Prerequisites: CH 117 [Min Grade: D] and CH 118 [Min Grade: D]

BY 327. Histology. 4 Hours.

Microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and organs of animals; correlation of structure and function. Techniques and methodology. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 115 [Min Grade: D] or BY 124 [Min Grade: D]

BY 327L. Histology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Histology Lab required with BY 327 lecture.

BY 330. Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

Biological molecules and metabolic processes; energetics; synthesis and regulation of macromolecules; differential gene expression; membranes and organelles; cytoskeleton; cell cycle and growth of normal and neoplastic cells.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and CH 235 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) and CH 234 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently) or CH 236 [Min Grade: C](Can be taken Concurrently)

BY 362. Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

This course teaches the biological basis of nervous system function, i.e., how the central nervous system is organized, and how neurons, synapses and neuronal circuits function in order to produce behavior. The course also provides the student with basic concepts in mammalian neuroendocrinology and age-related changes in nervous system structure and function.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 394. Biology Laboratory Teaching. 1-3 Hour.

Student will assist in instruction of a biology laboratory. Student is required to attend scheduled preparatory sessions each week, assist in teach assigned laboratory section, help develop student assignments such as examinations and/or practicals and assist the laboratory coordinator in other capacities as assigned. Students work under the direction of the course instructor and/or the laboratory coordinator. Student must have completed the course in which the student is assisting with a grade of B or higher. Permission of the instructor is required. May be repeated for credit to a maximum of three semester hours.

BY 395. Special Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hour.

This course will consider topics from the various disciplines in the biological sciences and the topic will differ each term. Course requirements may include lecture, laboratory, readings, discussion, reporting, and internships or fieldwork, which may be conducted on- or off-campus. May be taken more than once for credit.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 397. Advanced Directed Readings. 1-3 Hour.

Reading and independent study in selected areas under supervision of faculty sponsor. May be repeated for total of three semester hours credit. 12 semester hours of BY with BY GPA of 3.0 and permission of instructor required.

BY 398. Undergraduate Research. 1-3 Hour.

Research project under supervision of faculty sponsor. May be repeated for a total of 3 semester hours credit. 12 semester hours of BY with GPA of 3.0 and permission of instructor required.

BY 405. Microbial Physiology. 3 Hours.

Microbial structure and function, growth, metabolism, and regulation of cellular activity.
Prerequisites: BY 271 [Min Grade: D] and CH 235 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 236 [Min Grade: D] or CH 234 [Min Grade: D])

BY 407. Microbial Ecology. 3 Hours.

Microorganisms in nature; interactions with each other and with environment.
Prerequisites: BY 271 [Min Grade: D]

BY 409. Principles of Human Physiology. 4 Hours.

The lecture and laboratory course uses humans as a model system to investigate physiological processes occurring at cell, tissue, organ, and system levels. Additionally the use of experimental examples and laboratory experiments and the interpretation of data will be used to understand all aspects of productivity. The class is designed to improve scientific writing skills related to research experiment. Writing and Quantitative Literacy are significant components of this course. Foundation in anatomy recommended (BY 115 or BY 256).
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D] and CH 237 [Min Grade: D] and CH 238 [Min Grade: D] or CH 239 [Min Grade: D]

BY 409L. Principles of Human Physiology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Human Physiology Lab required with BY 408 and BY 409 lecture.

BY 410. Comparative Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

Comparative examples to illustrate general principles of physiology; study of how animals function in their environment.
Prerequisites: BY 256 [Min Grade: D]

BY 411. Advanced Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

This course is a detailed, advanced examination of gross human anatomy and histology. In a laboratory setting, students achieve course objectives by dissecting a human cadaver, and by observing prosected cadavers and casted models.
Prerequisites: BY 115 [Min Grade: C] or BY 124 [Min Grade: C] or BY 409 [Min Grade: C]

BY 416. Cellular Physiology. 3 Hours.

Biochemical and thermodynamic aspects of cellular energy metabolism. Foundation in physiology recommended (BY 124, BY 116, BY 409 or BY 410).
Prerequisites: BY 330 [Min Grade: D] and CH 237 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently) and CH 238 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently) or CH 239 [Min Grade: D])

BY 419. Reproductive Physiology. 3 Hours.

Comparative reproductive physiology in mammals, with emphasis on humans.
Prerequisites: BY 256 [Min Grade: D] and CH 235 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 236 [Min Grade: D] or CH 234 [Min Grade: D])

BY 420. General Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

The central theme of this course is the role of hormone chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes. Topics include structure of endocrine cells and glands, hormone synthesis and chemistry, physiological effects of hormones, and mechanisms of hormone action. Emphasis is placed on vertebrate systems, but instructive invertebrate systems are also considered.
Prerequisites: BY 256 [Min Grade: D]

BY 426. Evolutionary Medicine. 3 Hours.

An evolutionary approach to issues relating to human health and disease.
Prerequisites: (BY 116 [Min Grade: C] or BY 409 [Min Grade: C]) and BY 330 [Min Grade: C]

BY 429. Evolution. 3 Hours.

The course includes the history of evolutionary thought and modern evolutionary theory. Discussions cover (but are not limited to) the history of life, mechanisms of evolutionary change, sexual selection, adaptation, speciation, and molecular evolution. Students will also be introduced to historical and contemporary studies of evolution on a wide variety of topics and organisms.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D]

BY 431. Principles of DNA Technology. 3 Hours.

Manipulation of genes and their regulation; techniques used in recombinant DNA technology. Lecture.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D] and BY 311 [Min Grade: D]

BY 432. Biological Information Resources. 3 Hours.

The National Center for Biological Information (NCBI) website is a treasure house of information and tools for researchers in all areas of modern Biology. The goal of this course is to provide guidance for students who wish to become familiar with the NCBI website through an online learning experience. They will learn many of the features available at this site and will gain experience using some of the tools. The course will be taught completely online and will consist of 1) Guidelines for navigating through NCBI, 2) Study guide questions for students to answer online, 3) NCBI tutorials with questions to be answered online, 4) Assignments with questions to be answered online, 5) Online exams.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 433. Advanced Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

Molecular genetics of eukaryotic organisms, including analysis of the features and nature of eukaryotic genomes, genes, nucleosomes, and chromosomes; processes involved, such as transcription, splicing, transposition, and signal transduction. The role of molecular biology in cell growth and cancer. Lecture.
Prerequisites: BY 311 [Min Grade: D]

BY 434. Functional Genomics and Systems Biology. 3 Hours.

Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary study underlying complex biological processes as integrated systems of many interacting components. This course will give students a foundation in understanding complex biological interactions at the molecular, network and genomic level. This course will cover state-of-the-art high throughput established and novel approaches used in genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to obtain, integrate and analyze complex data. The students will also get familiar with knowledge on experimental perturbation of genomes, gene regulatory networks, comparative genomics and evolution, basic bioinformatics. This course will be a combination of text based lectures and discussions of the current literature relevant to Functional Genomics and Systems Biology.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 435. Natural History of Vertebrates. 4 Hours.

Lecture and field study of adaptations of vertebrate classes for survival in particular environments. Survey and classification of local vertebrates. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 256 [Min Grade: C]

BY 435L. Natural History of Vertebrates Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Natural History of the Vertebrates Lab required with BY 435 lecture.

BY 437. Epigenetics. 3 Hours.

This course provides a survey of the field of epigenetics, introducing the student to the diverse areas of epigenetic research in a variety of eukaryotic systems. The course combines lectures with discussion of primary literature and research talks from invited faculty speakers working in epigenetics. In addition to providing an overview of the field of epigenetics, this course emphasizes working with primary scientific literature and the development of critical reading skills. Recommended that Molecular Genetics be completed prior to enrollment.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 440. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Immune system and functions of host humoral and cellular immune responses. Mechanisms of antigen and antibody reactions and basic immunological methods.
Prerequisites: BY 271 [Min Grade: C] and BY 330 [Min Grade: C]

BY 442. Experimental Phycology. 4 Hours.

The course uses Algae as a model system to investigate various experimental approaches to assessing productivity with specific emphasis placed on classification, respiration, photosynthesis, growth and nutrient limitation. Additionally the use of experimental examples and laboratory experiments and the interpretation of data will be used to understand all aspects of productivity. Designed to improve scientific writing skills related to research experiments. Writing and Quantitative Literacy are significant components of this course.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and CH 117 [Min Grade: C] and (CH 118 [Min Grade: C] or CH 119 [Min Grade: C])

BY 442L. Experimental Phycology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Experimental Phycology Lab required with BY 442 lecture.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and CH 117 [Min Grade: C] and (CH 118 [Min Grade: C] or CH 119 [Min Grade: C])

BY 448. Psychoneuroimmunology. 3 Hours.

How neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate with each other. Regulatory processes mediated by interactions between these systems and application to diseases.
Prerequisites: BY 440 [Min Grade: D]

BY 450. Plant Physiology. 4 Hours.

Metabolic activities and growth processes of plants, with emphasis on photosynthesis, respiration, germination, dormancy, and hormones; physiological phenomena associated with phases of development. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 260 [Min Grade: D] and CH 235 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 236 [Min Grade: D] or CH 234 [Min Grade: D])

BY 450L. Plant Physiology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Plant Physiology Lab required with BY 450 lecture.

BY 451. Plant Biology. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to the basic concepts of plant biology including plant diversity, structure, physiology, metabolism, reproduction, genetics, molecular biology, evolution and ecology. It is targeted to Biology Majors and Biology Graduate Students. This class brings together knowledge and methodologies from a number of different disciplines to provide students with an intensive and comprehensive plant curriculum from the molecular to the organismal level.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 452. Field Botany. 4 Hours.

Plant identification and classification; consideration of phylogenetic systems. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 260 [Min Grade: D]

BY 452L. Field Botany Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Field Botany Lab required with BY 452 lecture.

BY 453. Mycology. 4 Hours.

Fungi, including morphology, development, physiology, taxonomy, and phylogeny. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: (BY 260 [Min Grade: D] or BY 271 [Min Grade: D]) and CH 235 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 236 [Min Grade: D] or CH 234 [Min Grade: D])

BY 453L. Mycology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Mycology Lab required with BY 453 lecture.

BY 456. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Study of the anatomical systems of vertebrates in an evolutionary and functional context. Covers form, function, development and phylogeny of vertebrates, with overviews of organ systems, and the major adaptive events of vertebrate evolution. Labs complement lectures with dissections of representative species, and surveys of specializations in other forms. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 456L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Lab. 0 Hours.

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Lab required with BY 456 lecture.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 460. Advanced Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

This course takes an in-depth look at aspectd of the biology of the Echinodermata and Crustacea. The course fromat includes lectures, guest lectures, and student critiques of papers from the scientific literature. There is a field trip to Blunt Springs to search for echinoderm fossils. Lecture and student projects.
Prerequisites: BY 255 [Min Grade: D]

BY 465. Limnology. 4 Hours.

Chemical and physical principles of lakes and streams; biology of freshwater and estuarine organisms. Lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisites: BY 255 [Min Grade: D] or BY 256 [Min Grade: D] or BY 260 [Min Grade: D]

BY 465L. Limnology Laboratory. 0 Hours.

Limnology Lab required with BY 465 lecture.

BY 467. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

The course covers the structure and dynamics of populations with an emphasis on understanding how reproduction, mortality and dispersal interact to control fluctuations in population size and structure. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of computer models and interpretation of data to address specific applications in conservation biology and natural resource management. Quantitative Literacy is a significant component of this course.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C]

BY 469. Molecular Ecology and Phylogenetics. 3 Hours.

Course will survey processes and patterns of molecular evolution and methods of phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences, amino acid sequences, and molecular markers.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 470. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Ecosystems and population biology. Lecture.
Prerequisites: BY 255 [Min Grade: D] or BY 256 [Min Grade: D] or BY 260 [Min Grade: D] or BY 271 [Min Grade: D]

BY 471. Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Laboratory in ecosystems and population biology. May be taken concurrently with BY 470.
Prerequisites: BY 470 [Min Grade: D](Can be taken Concurrently)

BY 474. Chemical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Study of chemical interactions between organisms or between organisms and their enviroment. Topics include chemical signaling between organisms, sensing of the chemical environment, and chemical defenses against predators, pathogens, biofoulers, or competitors. Students will be introduced to these topics in wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats, with a special emphasis on marine organisms.
Prerequisites: BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and CH 235 [Min Grade: C]

BY 475. Comparative Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Mechanisms of development with emphasis on comparative biology.
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D]

BY 480. Emergency Medicine Internship. 3 Hours.

This semester-long internship is designed to provide undergraduate students with an authentic hands-on medical research experience. The course will allow students the opportunity to assist faculty members and residents of the UAB Department of Emergency Medicine in their clinical research studies. Specifically, students will be involved in patient recruitment for the study, determine patient eligibility, reading information about the studies to patients, and collecting data regarding patient history. Students will also have the methodology associated with clinical research. Junior or senior standing, minimum GPA of 3.5, completed application and acceptance into the internship program required.

BY 485. Special Topics in Biology. 0-4 Hours.

This course will consider topics from the various disciplines in the biological sciences and the topic will differ each term. Course requirements may include lecture, laboratory, readings, discussion, reporting, and internships or fieldwork, which may be conducted on- or off-campus. May be taken more than once for credit.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 490. Bio Capstone: Human Physiology. 4 Hours.

Physiological processes occurring at cell, tissue, organ, and system levels in mammals with emphasis on humans. Students that enroll in this capstone experience will be expected to do additional work to fulfill their biology capstone requirement. Lecture and Laboratory. Foundation in anatomy recommended (Human Anatomy or Verterbrate Zoology).
Prerequisites: BY 210 [Min Grade: D] and CH 237 [Min Grade: D] and (CH 238 [Min Grade: D] or CH 239 [Min Grade: D])

BY 491. Biology Capstone - Evolution. 4 Hours.

The course introduces the history of evolutionary thought and modern evolutionary theory. Discussions cover (but are not limited to) the history of life, mechanisms of evolutionary change, sexual selection, adaptation, speciation, and molecular evolution. Students will be introduced to historical and contemporaty studies of evolution on a wide variety of topics and organisms. Students that enroll in this class as their capstone experience are expected to do writing and ethics assignments to fulfill their capstone requirement.

BY 492. Biology Capstone - Undergraduate Research. 4 Hours.

Research project under supervision of faculty sponsor. Student must enroll for 4 credit hours and must have senior standing. Students who enroll in this course as their capstone experience will be required to do additional work to fulfill their biology capstone requirement.

BY 493. Biology Capstone - Honors Research. 4 Hours.

Research project under supervision of faculty sponsor. You must enroll in 4 credit hours and you must have senior standing. Students that identify this course as their capstone experience will be required to do additional work to fulfill their biology capstone requirement.

BY 495. Special Topics in Biology. 0-4 Hours.

This course will consider topics from the various disciplines in the biological sciences and the topic will differ each term. Course requirements may include lecture, laboratory, readings, discussion, reporting, and internships or fieldwork, which may be conducted on- or off-campus. May be taken more than once for credit.
Prerequisites: BY 123 [Min Grade: C] and BY 124 [Min Grade: C] and BY 210 [Min Grade: C]

BY 496. Fundamentals of Clinical Research. 3 Hours.

Issues relevant to the conduct of clinical research: ethics, hypothesis testing, study design, and data collection and management. Lecture and clinical interaction with patients. Prerequisites: Junior or Senior level biology majors; 15 hours of biology credit with a 3.5 GPA in biology courses, and permission of instructor.

BY 498. Honors Research. 1-6 Hour.

Research project for students admitted to Honors Research Program. Two or three terms required during which minimum of 6 semester hours must be earned. Grade assigned at completion of program. 18 hours of biology with minimum GPA of 3.5 in biology classes and admission to Honors Research Program required.

BY 499. Biology Seminar. 1 Hour.

Student presentations and discussions. Subject matter varies by term. See current class schedule for topic. Senior standing and permission of instructor required.